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This page contains a curated list of those the frontier of cognitive liberty and religious freedom in the 21st century.

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The Oklevueha Native American Church

The Oklevueha Native American Church won the right of its members to use various sacraments in their ceremonies at the federal level and in some states. People v. Woody (1964), Native American Church of New York v United States (1979), Oregon v. Smith (1990), On June 23, 2004, the Utah Supreme Court ruled that a federal exemption for peyote-using members of the Native American Church must be interpreted as applying to non-Indians and Indians alike. Utah’s Controlled Substances Act incorporates the federal exemption, ruled the court, and because the plain language of the federal exemption is not limited to Indians, it must be read as applicable to Linda and James Mooney, both of whom are non-Indian members of the Native American Church. See here for chart on state exemptions>>>

Membership application open to general public (subject to approval), is open to non tribal members.

Centro Espírita Beneficente União do Vegetal (UDV)

UDV also won the right of its members to use their sacrament Hoasca in ceremonies in the US jurisdiction. On February 21, 2006 the United States Supreme Court issued a unanimous decision affirming Religious Liberty in the case of Gonzales vs. O Centro Espirita Beneficente União do Vegetal. There are many branches around the world.

Membership in the US is invitation only.

Santo Daime

September 2008, the three Oregon Santo Daime churches filed suit in federal court to gain legal status. Their trial ended January 23, 2009. The case, Church of the Holy Light of the Queen b. Mukasey, presided over by Judge Owen M. Panner, ruled in favor of the Santo Daime church. In March 2009, Judge Panner found that the use of hallucinogenic tea by members of such churches was legal, issuing an injunction barring the government from penalizing them for its consumption. At this time there have been no other incidences or court cases in other states. At the federal level, court battles over ritual use of ayahuasca have mostly been fought by the UDV. So far, the UDV has been able to continue practicing legally because of the Supreme Court decisions that soundly rejected attempts by the government to prohibit it. Many branches exist around the world.

Membership in the US is invitation only.


The Ambrosia Society

The central sacrament of the Ambrosia Society is the Amanita Muscara or Fly Agaric Mushroom. At this time their sacrament is not Scheduled. There are no known court cases or prosecutions to date. One branch exists in Texas.

Membership is open to the public (subject to approval).

First Church of Cannabis

 The First Church of Cannabis received approval as a religious organization from Secretary of State Connie Lawson of State of Indiana  as well as 501c3 status from the IRS this year. Pioneered by minister Bill Levin, this organization will be using Cannabis as the sacrament, holding their first service on July 1, 2015, the first day the religious-freedom law recently passed in Indiana will go into effect.

Membership appears open but limited to Indiana residents.